Phrasals

Dziś zajmiemy się mało wdzięcznym, a wręcz znienawidzonym przez wielu uczniów tematem – Phrasal verbs, czyli czasownikami złożonymi (lub frazowymi) w języku angielskim. Jakkolwiek straszne by owe czasowniki nie były i jakich uczuć grozy czy odrazy by nie budziły, prędzej czy później trzeba stawić im czoła, albowiem rodowici Anglicy złośliwie używają tychże konstrukcji gdzie popadnie, siejąc zamęt w i tak wystarczająco chaotycznym języku. By jeszcze odrobinę uprzykrzyć egzystencję wszystkich nieboraków zgłębiających tajniki języka angielskiego dodam, iż wiele czasowników złożonych posiada kilka znaczeń, często nijak ze sobą niezwiązanych. W tym momencie zapewne zastanawiacie się, czy istnieje jakaś sprytna, łatwa i przyjemna metoda nauki tej pokrętnej części słownictwa? Czy buduję napięcie, by potem jednym zdaniem z powrotem przywrócić uśmiechy na twarze mych dzielnych Czytelników (i Czytelniczek)? Cóż, powiem krótko – nie. Trzeba zacząć wkuwać, ot co. Zatem do roboty moi drodzy! Poniżej (na rozgrzewkę) lista 25 popularnych, przydatnych i powszechnie stosowanych czasowników frazowych, które po prostu trzeba znać. Każdy czasownik opatrzony jest definicją w języku angielskim i ilustrującym znaczenie przykładem.

1. Add up

To be added together and equal the expected or correct total.

Example: “We have added up the plums and there are 17 in total″

To make sense : to seem to be logical or true.

Example: “Her story didn’t add up, I think she was lying, it didn’t make any sense at all”

2. Blow up

To fill (something) with air or gas

Example: “Please could you blow up those balloons for me?”

To explode or to cause something, such as a bomb to explode.

Example: “The hangar was blown up by a bomb”

To become very angry.

Example: “When Josh said he couldn’t visit Jill in the evening, she blew up”

3. Bring up

To take care of and look after a child who is growing up.

Example: “His grandparents brought him up because his parents were always travelling”

To mention something when talking : to start to talk about a new subject.

Example: “Don’t bring up this embarrassing subject ever again, please!”

4. Call off

To stop doing or planning to do something.

Example: “Cathy called off the wedding, because she decided she didn’t love her fiancé”

To cause or tell a person or animal to stop attacking, chasing, etc.

Example: “Call off your crazy dog! He’s attacking my poor little kitty.”

5. Carry on

To continue to do what you have been doing

Example: “Sorry I interrupted, please carry on explaining the subject”

To behave or speak in an excited or foolish way.

Example: “The naughty little girl was carrying on shouting and kicking all day long”

6. Come across

To seem to have a particular quality or character; to make a particular impression.

Example: “Sarah came across as an extremely selfish person”

To be expressed to someone.

Example: “I tried to appear cheerful but it came across as over-excited”

To meet or find something or someone by chance.

Example: “Michael was leaving the restaurant and he came across Terry, which was quite a coincidence”

7. Come up with

To get or think of something that is needed or wanted.

Example: “We finally came up with a solution to this difficult and challenging problem!”

8. Fall apart

To break into parts in usually a sudden and unexpected way,

Example: “Unfortunately my cake completely fell apart when I tried to cut it”

To become unable to live in a normal way because you are experiencing a lot of confusion or emotional pain

Example: “After the divorce, Eve fell apart and had a lot of problems with her life.”

9. Get along

To be or remain friendly

Example: “We’re not together anymore with my ex-girlfriend, but we get along great, so we are both happy.”

To make progress while doing something.

Example: “How are you getting along at playing the piano?”

To leave a place

Example: “It was a real pleasure to see you, but my friend has to get along, because she has some lessons soon”

10. Get away

To go away from a place.

Example: “I can’t wait to get away from the city and visit the countryside.”

b- To avoid being caught : to escape

Example: “The robbers somehow managed to get away in a stolen car”

11. Get over

To stop being controlled or bothered by something, such as a problem or feeling.

Example: “I got over my fear of spiders, but I am still afraid of snakes.”

To stop feeling unhappy about something.

Example: “At last! Sandra got over her ex-boyfriend”

12. Give up

To stop an activity or effort; to admit that you cannot do something and stop trying

Example: “We all gave up smoking on January 1st, which was our resolution for that year.”

13. Go on

To continue.

Example: “They arrived in Cracow and then went on to Warsaw.”

To happen

Example: “What’s going on? What’s happening?”

Used in speech to urge someone to do something

Example: “Go on! Try it, it’s delicious and I am sure you will like it!”

14. Hold on

To have or keep your hand, arms, etc., tightly around something.

Example: “Hold on to the railing, that way you won’t fall.”

15. Look after

To take care of someone or something.

Example: “The nurse looked after the patient for weeks, until he got better”

16. Look forward to

To expect something with pleasure.

Example: “Andy is really looking forward to spending the weekend in the mountains”

17. Look up

Improve.

Example: “The economic situation of that country is finally looking up”

To search for something in a reference book, on the Internet, etc.

Example: “Let’s look up this difficult word in a dictionary.”

18. Make out

To hear and understand something

Example: “I can’t make out what you’re saying, can you speak more clearly please?”

To kiss and touch for a long time in a sexual way.

Example: “We made out after the party in the park nearby.”

19. Pass out

To fall asleep or become unconscious.

Example: “Monica was so tired, she got home and passed out on the sofa while the TV was still on.”

to give something to several or many people.

Example: “I passed out leaflets with information on our meeting next Sunday.”

20. Pull over

To move a vehicle to the side of the road and stop.

Example: “That looks like a pleasant cafe, can you pull the car over and park?”

21. Put down

To place someone or something that you have been holding or carrying on a table, on the floor, etc.

Example: “You can put all the luggage down in the corridor”

To write something; to record something in writing

Example: “He put down all the details of the meeting in order not to forget anything.”

22. Put off

To decide that something will happen at a later time; postpone.

Example: “David was so exhausted that he put the shopping off until Tuesday”

To cause someone to dislike someone or something

Example: “You’re putting me off my dinner, stop talking about spiders, bugs and other creepy-crawlies!”

23. Put up with

To allow someone or something unpleasant or annoying to exist or happen.

Example: “My neighbor won’t put up with any bad language in his house”

24. Turn up

To arrive at a place

Example: “As always, Sally turned up late at the meeting.”

To increase the volume, temperature, etc., of something by pressing a button, moving a switch, etc.

Example: “Please turn the music down, I cannot concentrate with all that noise.”

25. Watch out

To be aware of something dangerous.

Example: “Watch out in the mountain, there are bears, wolves and other dangerous animals there!”